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Disabling SSL renegotiation is a crutch, not a fix

In the days that followed the discovery of SSL/TLS Authentication Gap, some sites (those that did not need renegotiation) were able to deal with the problem by disabling renegotiation in server code. With no support for renegotiation, gone was the danger of exploitation. Good for them.

The sites that did need renegotiation had to wait, first for the TLS working group to solve the issue on the protocol level, and then for their SSL library (or web server) vendors to support the enhancement. The TLS working group did a great job negotiating the fix. As for the vendors, some implemented the new feature quickly, some dragged their feet a little, and some (Debian) seem to refuse to fix the problem, leaving their users vulnerable.

To sum it up, today, almost a year after the initial public discovery, we have some servers that are still vulnerable, some that refuse to support renegotiation, and some that support the new standard for secure renegotiation.

So where is the problem, you might ask? If disabling renegotiation prevents exploitation, that’s surely a good thing? Well, it depends on how you look at things. Try to look at the problem through the eyes of a browser developer. I was actually prompted to write about this problem by Yngve Nysæter Pettersen, who’s part of Opera’s security group. Opera wants to protect its users, and for that to be possible they need to know if a particular server supports secure renegotiation. If a server does, Opera can happily renegotiate whenever necessary. But if a server does not support secure renegotiation, you can make an argument that Opera should refuse any renegotiation attempts.

The servers that support secure renegotiation indicate so during the SSL handshake phase, and everyone’s happy and secure. The issue is with the servers that disable renegotiation, because they provide no indication of their security status. Some are insecure, while some aren’t. Without knowing, browsers can’t do anything. They can perhaps only inconvenience users and force them to manually configure protection levels.

While it is possible to test for insecure renegotiation (SSL Labs does it), the test is indicative but not conclusive — there is no way to test for server-initiated renegotiation. Besides, it’s not reasonable to expect browsers to test every SSL site they encounter.

My point is those that disabled SSL renegotiation must nevertheless implement the proper fix as soon as it becomes available for their platform. Patching is slow enough as it is, and we don’t need any further distractions to slow us down.

Internet SSL Survey 2010 Results

We are happy to announce the results of the first Internet SSL Survey conducted by SSL Labs. The 2010 version is a result of several months of full time work, resulting with a detailed analysis of how SSL is deployed on the Internet.

Attachments

Internet SSL Survey 2010 3.0 M

SSL and TLS Authentication Gap vulnerability discovered

A serious vulnerability has been discovered in the way web servers utilise SSL (and TLS, up to the most recent version, 1.2), effectively allowing an active man-in-the-middle attacker to inject arbitrary content into an encrypted data stream. Both the Apache web server and the IIS have been found to be vulnerable.

The problem is with the renegotiation feature, which allows one part of an encrypted connection (the one taking place before renegotiation) to be controlled by one party with the other part (the one taking place after renegotiation) to be controlled by another. A MITM attacker can open a connection to an SSL server, send some data, request renegotiation and, from that point on, continue to forward to the SSL server the data coming from a genuine user. One could argue that this is not a fault in the protocols, but it is certainly a severe usability issue. The protocols do not ensure continuity before and after negotiation.

To make things worse, web servers will combine the data they receive prior to renegotiation (which is coming from an attacker) with the data they receive after renegotiation (which is coming from a victim). This issue is the one affecting the majority of SSL users.

The following example demonstrates how the flaw can be exploited by an attacker to send an arbitrary request using the authentication credentials of a victim. The red parts are sent by the attacker and the blue parts are sent by the victim.

GET /path/to/resource.jsp HTTP/1.0
Dummy-Header:
GET /index.jsp HTTP/1.0
Cookie: sessionCookie=Token

The good news is that, although the attacker can execute an arbitrary request, he will not be able to retrieve the corresponding response. On the negative side, the client will see something different from that what she requested.

You can see that GET attacks are essentially trivial to execute. To date, no one has claimed a successful execution of a POST request using this flaw. Until someone does, that means that an application that only makes changes in response to POST requests will probably not be vulnerable. Further, an application not vulnerable to CSRF attacks will probably be safe too, because the attacker won’t be able to generate or predict the token required for the request to go through.

Mitigation options:

  1. If you can, disable renegotiation. There isn’t normally a configuration option to do this, but patches are being developed and will be available soon. The majority of web sites do not use renegotiation so disabling it won’t be a problem. Those that do will need to make changes to their sites to make them work without it.
  2. Use a web application firewall to monitor the contents of all request headers to spot what seems like an embedded HTTP request line. The good news is that the embedded request line will not be obfuscated, making it easier to detect. I do not believe that this advice can help the bypass of the client certificate authentication, though.
  3. If you can, monitor all connections that make use of the renegotiation feature. That won’t help you if renegotiation is an integral feature of your web site, but it may do if it is rarely used.

Further information: